A scientific review of the health hazards of smoking.
SmokeHaz was a collaboration between the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies (UKCTAS). The two organisations joined forces with the European Lung Foundation (ELF) to produce the SmokeHaz website.
The aim of the SmokeHaz website was to provide a one-stop web platform assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and a range of specific health outcomes, particularly focusing on lung health.
All of the available scientific studies that provided an unbiased account of the true relationship between smoking and health were collected and analysed using systematic reviews and meta-analysis. A full outline of the methods used can be found here.
The research was independently funded by the ERS and was carried out by the UKCTAS with the oversight of the ERS Tobacco Control Committee (TCC). The outcomes of the project were approved by the Executive Committee of ERS.
Active and passive smoking are linked to many lung conditions. A summary of the main findings of the SmokeHaz project can be found here and downloaded. A link to the full paper published can be found here: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27102185/
Lung cancer is 11 times more likely in active smokers and 1.41 times (41%) more likely in people exposed to passive smoke. COPD is 4 times more likely in active smokers and more likely in non-smokers exposed to passive smoke. Adult asthma is 1.61 times (61%) more likely in active smokers. TB is 1.57 times (57%) more likely in active smokers and 1.44 times (44%) more likely for non-smokers exposed to passive smoke. Asthma exacerbations are 1.71 times (71%) more likely in active smokers. Sleep apnoea is 2 times more likely in active smokers.
Lower respiratory infections are 1.82 times (82%) more likely in infants exposed to passive smoke from both parents. Childhood asthma and wheeze are 1.65-1.70 times (65-70%) more likely in children exposed to passive maternal smoke and 1.30-1.50 times (30-50%) more likely in children exposed to prenatal smoking. Asthma exacerbations are 2.55-3.25 times more likely in children with asthma who are exposed to passive smoking. Sleep apnoea is more likely in children exposed to passive smoking by the mother either during or after pregnancy. The summary document is also available in: Arabic, German, Greek, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, French and Spanish. To ensure the strictest independence and integrity of the science, the research has omitted any declared or identifiable studies from the tobacco industry.
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